What is Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia?
Chronic myeloid leukemia is a tumorous disease that is clonal in nature and arises from the early predecessors of myelopoiesis, whose morphological substrate is predominantly mature and mature granulocytes, mainly neutrophils.
Causes of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
In the structure of the incidence of hemoblastoses, chronic myelogenous leukemia takes the fifth place (8.9% of cases). The non-standardized average annual incidence rate per 100,000 population is 1 case. It is rarely diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, chronic myelogenous leukemia is equally common among men and women, usually people aged 30–70 years get sick, and in childhood and adolescence the disease is rare.
Pathogenesis during Chronic myelogenous leukemia
A significant increase in the incidence of chronic myelogenous leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki among people in the area of the atomic bomb is one evidence of the role of radiation in its development. There is evidence of the effects of chemical compounds and birth defects of chromosomes. In most cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia, a Ph ‘chromosome is detected. This anomaly is often combined with trisomy 8, 9, 19, 21, deletion 5, and other chromosome defects. Sometimes there are cases of Ph’-negative variant of the disease.
The mitotic index and the label index of promyelocytes, bone marrow myelocytes and peripheral blood in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia do not differ from the normative indicators, while the myeloblast fraction is characterized by kinetic parameters found in acute myeloid leukemia.
Symptoms of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
In 86-88% of cases of chronic myeloid leukemia in the granulocytes, monocytes, erythro- and megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, a Ph’-chromosome is detected. Its absence in lymphocytes is characteristic. The number of cells with a Ph’-chromosome in the bone marrow is about 98-100%. A variant of chronic myelogenous leukemia with the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome is rare, has a more unfavorable course and a shorter average life expectancy of patients.
There are chronic, progressive and acute (blast crisis) stages of chronic myelogenous leukemia, characterized by a complex of certain signs.